Faithful and Ready: Black Service in the Ohio Army National Guard(Part II)

by arohmiller - February 11th, 2015

Written by: SFC Joshua Mann, Historian, Ohio Army National Guard

From the formation of the Northwest Territory Militia in 1788, until the termination of racial segregation in the Ohio National Guard in 1954 and service since, black Soldiers from Ohio have distinguished themselves in service to their country even in the face of difficult race, social and political barriers.

Even after the service of the 5th and later the 27th USCT, also assembled from Ohio’s black Soldiers, in the Civil War, Ohio’s laws remained silent on black membership in the militia. New laws in 1878 looked to shape the guard into a more ready force and opened military service to all male citizens. In 1881 the 9th Battalion of Infantry was formed from two existing black companies, the Du Quesne Blues of Springfield and Poe Light Guards of Columbus; in 1884 the Martin Light Guard of Xenia joined the battalion.

Colonel Charles Young was the third black graduate of the U.S. Military Academy in 1889. He was a member of the famous Buffalo Soldiers before being awarded the rank of Major in 1898 and placed in command of the all-black 9th battalion, Ohio Volunteer Infantry at Camp Algers, Virginia, a post he held until the battalion returned to Ohio in 1899.

Colonel Charles Young was the third black graduate of the U.S. Military Academy in 1889. He was a member of the famous Buffalo Soldiers before being awarded the rank of Major in 1898 and placed in command of the all-black 9th battalion, Ohio Volunteer Infantry at Camp Algers, Virginia, a post he held until the battalion returned to Ohio in 1899.

When War with Spain was declared in 1898, the 9th Battalion added a fourth company in Cleveland and was mustered into Federal service in May. As the battalion prepared to leave Columbus, a political showdown forced the resignation of the battalion commander. His replacement was a regular army officer and the third black graduate of West Point, Charles Young. A native Buckeye, Major Young was known as a strict disciplinarian and introduced the guardsman to the rigors of professional military life. The war would end before most Ohio units could see combat and the 9th Ohio returned home in January 1899.

Ohio National Guard officers in France during WWI (L-R) 2d Lt. Tom Walker, 1st Lt. Ben Rudd, and 2d Lt. William Nichols

Ohio National Guard officers in France during WWI (L-R) 2d Lt. Tom Walker, 1st Lt. Ben Rudd, and 2d Lt. William Nichols

The battalion quickly reorganized and in the years prior to World War I answered many calls for aid to Ohio’s citizens. In 1917, the 9th was drafted into Federal service for World War I and was consolidated with all black units from five other states to form the 372d Infantry. In France, it was assigned to the French 157th Division and would receive the French Croix de Guerre for their actions in the Meusse-Argonne Campaign. Lieutenant Robert C. Allen, one of the few remaining black officers in the regiment, became the first African-American to receive the Distinguished Service Cross.

Colonel Howard C. Gilbert was the commander of teh 2d Battalion, 372d Infantry from its reorganization in 1924 until he was promoted to colonel and in command of the 372d Infantry Regiment in 1940. He first enlisted in the Ohio National Guard in 1893 and was a veteran of World War I.

Colonel Howard C. Gilbert was the commander of teh 2d Battalion, 372d Infantry from its reorganization in 1924 until he was promoted to colonel and in command of the 372d Infantry Regiment in 1940. He first enlisted in the Ohio National Guard in 1893 and was a veteran of World War I.

Reorganization following the war was slow for the black units. It was not until 1924 that the battalion was formed, again taking shape as the 2d Battalion, 372d Infantry. Life for the battalion during the inter-war years was comprised of routine weekly drills, summer camps and the occasional call to state active duty. On March 10, 1941, the battalion was ordered into federal service and left Ohio for Fort Dix, New Jersey. After a brief basic training it was assigned “home guard” duties in Philadelphia and later New York, guarding the harbor, subway and other key installations. Following stops in Kentucky and Arizona the 372d was finally sent to the pacific and was assigned to defensive positions on Hawaii. The war ended before the battalion could see combat and the 372d was inactivated on January 21, 1946.

Faithful and Ready: Black Service in the Ohio Army National Guard (Part I)

by arohmiller - February 9th, 2015

Written by: SFC Joshua Mann, Historian, Ohio Army National Guard

From the formation of the Northwest Territory Militia in 1788, until the termination of racial segregation in the Ohio National Guard in 1954 and service since, black Soldiers from Ohio have distinguished themselves in service to their country even in the face of difficult race, social and political barriers.

The National Colors of the Black Brigade of Cincinnati.

The National Colors of the Black Brigade of Cincinnati.

When the Northwest Territory Militia was born on July 25, 1788 it called for all physically-qualified males between the ages of sixteen and fifty to perform military service, providing no restriction on race or citizenship status. In defense of the frontier from Indian raids, many black Soldiers enrolled in the militia and participated in the defense of the settlements. However, in September 1799, the territorial legislature passed an updated militia law restricting military service to “able bodied, white male citizens.”

This restriction on military service, which many considered a rite of manhood in their community, continued officially for the next sixty years. Even as Ohio Soldiers answered the call for the War of 1812 and Mexican War, record of black Soldiers in either fight does not exist. However, with state and federal laws prohibiting non whites from serving in the organized militia, evidence exists of the formation of black independent militia companies in Ohio prior to the Civil War. In 1854 it was described that “A colored military company has been formed in Cincinnati, pronounced by competent judges to be well manned, well officered and well drilled. They have chosen the appropriate historic name of ‘Attacks Guards.” By 1860 another company, also named Attacks Guards, was formed in the Athens County village of Albany.

Even with the formation of these independent units, President Lincoln’s call for troops at the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861 continued to be answered by the all white militia. In 1862, Ohio Governor David Todd proposed that the Ohio militia could improve with the admission of black volunteer companies and declared “these men would serve as a model for the future advancement of the colored race in Ohio.” Ohio lawmakers commended the governor’s efforts, but refused to change the law.

Tod’s inspiration to change the law might have grown from the service of the Black Brigade of Cincinnati in September 1862. As Confederate troops moved north through Kentucky and towards Ohio, Tod called upon all loyal Ohioans to help defend the southern border at Cincinnati. On the night of September 2, 1862, 700 black males were violently forced from their homes by Cincinnati Police. When William Martin Dickson arrived the next day to take command of the brigade, he found his troops laboring on the south side of the Ohio River at Fort Mitchell angered by their treatment the previous night. Dickson sent the men home with instructions to return the next morning at 5:00 a.m.

The following morning nearly all 700 men returned and went to work digging trenches and riffle-pits, building forts and making roads. Although they never participated in combat, the Black Brigade was the first wave of black volunteers to defend the state.

1st Sgt. Robert Pinn was a member of Company I, 5th United States Colored Troops during the American civil war and was one of only four blacks from Ohio to receive the Medal of Honor during the war. In 1874, the new armory in Stow was named in honor of Pinn.

1st Sgt. Robert Pinn was a member of Company I, 5th United States Colored Troops during the American civil war and was one of only four blacks from Ohio to receive the Medal of Honor during the war. In 1874, the new armory in Stow was named in honor of Pinn.

Many in the Black Brigade inspired by their service would later travel to Boston to enlist in the famous 54th Massachusetts Infantry. Governor Tod, upset that these Buckeyes were lost in the credits of other states, detailed Capt. Lewis McCoy of the 115th Ohio Volunteer Infantry to begin recruiting black Soldiers. A camp was established near Delaware and although progress at first was slow, the nuclease of the 127th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was finally formed by the fall of 1863. Soon after, the War Department called for colored troops and the 127th became the 5th United States Colored Troops (USCT) and headed off to war. During one fight at Chafin’s Farm in Virginia on September 29, 1864 Sergeants Beatty, Holland, Pinn and Brunson were later awarded the Medal of Honor, becoming the only black Ohioans to receive the award during the war.

Letters Were a “Lifeline” for Buckeye Soldiers

by arohmiller - December 11th, 2014

Written by Frederic C. Lynch, Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War

Written communications were a lifeline communicating news from home to Buckeye Billy Yank, and in turn, from bivouac and battlefield to kin and neighbors back home. Historian Bell Wiley noted, “a civilian worker with the U. S. Sanitary Commission who visited a number of units in 1861 reported soldiers in many regiments sent an average of 600 letters per day.” Ohio regiments in 1861 generally consisted of about 700 to 1,000 men. Typical time en route for a letter from civilian sender to soldier receiver, or the other way, was 7-10 days. Research documents about 90 percent of white Union soldiers could read and write. A letter from home was often kept in a pocket close to a soldier’s heart and read and re-read. Many soldiers also carried letters in a uniform pocket to be delivered to family if they were killed in action.

U.S. Army Mail Wagon

U.S. Army Mail Wagon

Knowing news from home helped morale, the U.S. Army assigned people at the unit level to collect, distribute, and deliver mail. Mail wagons and post office tents served as field post offices. In 1861, the U.S. Post Office Department charged three cents (77 cents in 2014 dollars) to mail a half-ounce letter up to 3,000 miles. A Union private’s monthly pay was $13. In 1863 the U.S. Post Office Department authorized soldiers to write “Soldier’s Letter” on the mailed envelope instead of using a postage stamp. Postage was paid by the receiver on the receiving end.

Because military units were constantly moving, the U.S. Army established central mail sorting centers to process letters to and from soldiers. In the east, about 45,000 pieces of mail a day were sent through Washington D.C. by Army of the Potomac soldiers. About 90,000 letters a day were sent by Union soldiers serving in the western theater through postal centers in Louisville and Nashville. A soldier who kept track of his outgoing mail reported in 1863 he sent 109 letters to homefolk, 55 letters to other friends, and 37 letters written by him on behalf of others who could not write letters themselves. The soldier also recorded he received 85 letters in return.

letter 1Some letters shared how a soldier felt concerning events and their commitment to the Union cause. Corporal Orrin Green, of the 23rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry, wrote his sister Feb. 29, 1862 from Raleigh N.C., “Oh what a time of rejoicing there was in camp when we received the news of the taking of Fort Donaldson and the rebels there in with their officers & arms & also the taking of General Pierce & his aides & it makes us glad to hear such news for we think there is hopes of our getting home once more to enjoy life but we don’t want to come home until the thing is settled for sertin & shure…”

letter 2Many letters were personal. On Jan. 30, 1863, Private George Deal, a Union Army soldier in Company K, 20th Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment, sent his wife, Sarah, a letter and a valentine (pictured here): “I will send you this valentine just because I thought it was nice . . . I know you will keep it till I come home if I am so permitted. I would be glad to see you all, even the cat, but I must close as I have told you about all I can think of at this time.” The following year, Deal died during the Battle of Atlanta. Almost 10 years later, Sarah perished in a house fire in Sidney, Ohio. The letter and valentine survive today to remember their affection.

Soldiers’ letters in general followed a 19th century writing format: a first paragraph containing a personal salutation and observation, followed by brief comments concerning a recent personal event, then information regarding the writer’s health and well being, and often concluding with a special request. A typical soldier’s letter was written by Private Joseph Cherry, 95th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Feb. 27, 1864 from his duty station in Scottsboro, Ala. to a relative in another Union unit:

            “Dear Cousin,

                        I now seat myself to write you a few lines to let you know how I am getting along and as I have not heard from you for a long time thinking you were down the river on that expedition, I have not written you lately. But I learned today through one of our boys that you were at Memphis. There-fore, I thought I would write you a few lines. I suppose you have heard from home lately as I heard the other day from sister telling me of your father’s death for which I sympathize with you very much.

                        I presume you are aware of our regiment reenlisting as Veterans — among the number is myself. I suppose you will think I done wrong but I think I have good reasons for so doing. We expected to have gone home before this time but have not got off yet but expect to soon. John Martin & Ralph Watson was at home when sister wrote. I do not know whether they have reenlisted or not.

                        I have enjoyed the best of health this winter as we have the best of quarters and nothing much to do as I am in the Pioneer Corps which was organized at Iuka last fall. We had the best of times while on the march to Chattanooga. We did not take part in the fight at Mission[ary] Ridge [Nov. 25, 1863] but was so close that we could see the boys climb the Ridge. It was a sight to witness.

                        I would like to ask a favor from you if within your power and that is I have a box at Memphis  from which I heard the other day. I wrote back to the agent and enclosed a dollar to pay charges on it and told him to express it back to Columbus, Ohio. Will you please see to it if convenient as I would like to have it sent back to Ohio as soon as possible. If you do express it, do so in my name so when I get home I can get it. As I have no more news to write, I will close hoping to hear from you soon. Direct [mail] to me. With much respect, I remain your cousin, — J. M Cherry”

 

Mail for Union Soldiers during the Civil War was a lifeline. By the Oxford English Dictionary definition, a lifeline is, “a thing on which someone or something depends or which provides a means of escape from a difficult situation.” The definition applied for the “Boys in Blue 1861-65.” As illustration, on March 13, 1865, Private William Wettleson, a 12th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Union soldier serving in North Carolina eloquently documented for posterity: “I got my hands on your letter . . . and one from my wife . . . I can never remember of having been so glad before. I cried with joy and thankfulness.”

For more information, recommended sources are:

The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union by Bell Irvin Wiley; LSU Press, 2008

The Civil War in Letters Project of the Newberry Library – http://publications.newberry.org/civilwarletters

Ohio’s “Forlorn Hope” Medal of Honor Heroes

by arohmiller - October 22nd, 2014

Written By Fredric C. Lynch, Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War

The Medal of Honor (MOH) is the United States’ highest military award for “conspicuous gallantry at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty.” Ohioans received 196 of the 1,522 Medals of Honor awarded during the American Civil War. Of them, 120 were presented to Ohio soldiers and sailors for valor during the campaign to capture Vicksburg, Miss. between May and July 1863. Ninety-six of those Ohioans were honored with the MOH for valor demonstrated during a single battle fought May 22, 1863. That is the highest one-day total for award of the MOH in American History.

The objective of the American Civil War’s Vicksburg Campaign was to conquer and destroy the Confederate stronghold in and surrounding Vicksburg, Miss. The city headquartered and harbored defenses that enabled the Rebels to control access to the lower Mississippi River. The Union Army first attacked the city’s strong fortifications May 19, 1863. Unfortunately, unexpectedly strong resistance yielded high casualties and the attacked failed. An especially formidable fortification encountered was the section of the defensive line called the “Stockade Redan,” a 17-foot tall dirt wall protected in front by an 8-foot wide, 6-foot deep ditch.

General Ulysses S. Grant, the Union forces’ commander, ordered an attack upon the Stockade Redan for May 22. His plan called for attacking units to benefit from logs and boards laid across the water-filled ditch, and ladders placed in front of the fortification’s earthen walls. These were to be put in place ahead of the assault by a group of volunteers officially designated the “Storming Party,” but afterwards dubbed the “Forlorn Hope.”

As reported in the Sacramento Daily Union newspaper following the battle: “The 22d of May, 1863 will be always memorable as a day of heroic daring and forlorn hopes. On the one side was a cordon of battlements and rifle pits, stretching a natural chain of most formidable earthworks for six miles or more, and defended by the remnant of the (Confederate) Army of the Mississippi, amounting to 15,000 or 20,000 men. On the other was a vast army, the conquerors of five battlefields, and wrought up to the highest pitch of morale. The history is that of a herculean attempt by a splendid army to storm one of the finest — if not the finest — fortifications in the world. The chivalric and romantic bravery of that action was worthy of the best days of the Crusades or the ‘Old Guard.'”

The “Storming Party” chosen to precede the May 22 attack was to carry pre-positioned logs two men to a log, rush toward the enemy’s entrenchments, and place the logs across the ditch to form the groundwork for plank bridges. The second 50 man detachment was to follow with boards to be thrown across the logs to provide bridges for attacking forces to cross. The third detachment was to carry scaling ladders, rush across the board bridges, and position the ladders against the dirt embankment. Afterwards, Union infantry forces would charge in force to capture the defensive works.

On May 21st each regimental commander in the Union’s Army of Tennessee’s Fifteenth Army Corps’ Second Division was ordered by General William T. Sherman, their commander, to assemble their troops, outline the plan of operations, and request volunteers for the “Storming Party.” Each of their 15 regiments was to provide 10 volunteers. In total, 300 soldiers volunteered. Of them, 150 unmarried men were approved for the mission. They were the “Forlorn Hope.”

The assault of the storming party launched at 10 a.m. The gallant volunteers grabbed their logs, planks, and ladders in sequence and charged across more than 1,000 yards of open battlefield. The Storming Party encountered intense enemy fire. As Sergeant George Powell of the Confederate’s 36th Mississippi Regiment noted, the Federals: “fell like grass before the reaper.” Any that made it to the ditch or got across it were trapped and forced to stop. By 11 a.m., their valiant effort was clearly a failure. As General Sherman noted, “about half of them were shot down. When the survivors reached the ditch, they were unable to construct the bridges as too many logs had been lost along the way when their bearers were shot down.”

Of the 150 volunteers who were the “Forlorn Hope” at Vicksburg, 85 percent were killed or seriously wounded. Seventy-eight of their number were awarded the Medal of Honor.

William Archinal

William Archinal

Among Forlorn Hope volunteers to receive the MOH, was William Archinal of the 30th Ohio Volunteer Infantry. In course of the action, he was wounded and subsequently captured by Confederates. After his parole, Archinal wrote: “When I was taken into the fort, a rebel officer came up to me, slapped me on the shoulder, and said: ‘See here, young man, weren’t you fellows all drunk when you started this morning?’ I replied, ‘No, Sir!’ ‘Well, they gave you some whiskey before you started, didn’t they?’ he said, and I answered, ‘No Sir, that plan is not practiced in our army. ‘Didn’t you know it was certain death,’ he asked me again, and I replied, ‘Well, I don’t know, I am still living! ‘Yes,’ he said, ‘You are living, but I can assure you that very few of your comrades are.’”

Uriah H. Brown

Uriah H. Brown

Another 30th Ohio Infantry Regiment survivor and MOH recipient was Uriah H. Brown. The report of his gallantry noted,Despite the death of his captain at his side during the assault he continued carrying his log to the defense ditch. While he was laying his log in place he was shot down and thrown into the water. Unmindful of his own wound he, despite the intense fire, dragged 5 of his comrades from the ditch, wherein they lay wounded, to a place of safety.”

David Jones

David Jones

Most of the MOH award citations for heroes of the Forlorn Hope simply state, “Gallantry in the charge of the volunteer storming party.” Among them is that of David Jones. He was a member of Co. I, 54th Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Years after the war, Jones applied for a veterans’ pension. His file includes a vivid description of what he experienced: “. . . claimant and others, were compelled to remain all day in the hot sun, and suffering from all most incessant firing of cannon by the enemy at that time claimant and his comrades, who were still alive then, could not retreat until after night, for the reason, that they all would have been killed by the enemy. Said storming party was composed of 150 men, who volunteered for that purpose, at the request of General WT Sherman. Applicants ears bled at that time from the severity of concussion, from the enemy’s cannon….”

David F. Day was a sixteen year old Private in Co. D, 57th Ohio Infantry. His regimental commander, Colonel Americus

David F. Day

David F. Day

V.Rice, described him as “a most gallant and meritorious young soldier.” Day was courageous in the attack on the “Stockade Redan.” According to Col. Rice, “In the assault he was severely wounded in the wrist, and his gun was shot from his hands. With his bayonet he dug a hole in the Rebel works, in which he was shielded from hand-grenades, and remained there until he could return to our lines under cover of darkness.”

Sadly, today, the remarkable courage of the 150 Union Army volunteers who comprised the “Forlorn Hope” at Vicksburg May 22, 1863 is a rarely noted element among the abundance of remarkable sacrifices that comprise American Civil War history. Fortunately, each member of the Storming Party wherever they rest in honored glory also stands tall today with honor among our nation’s greatest military heroes.

For more information, recommended sources are:

The Campaign for Vicksburg: (3 volume set) by Edwin C. Bearss; Vol. I-Vicksburg Is the Key; Vol. II-Grant Strikes a Fatal Blow; Vol. III-Unvexed to the Sea; Morningside Bookshop 1991.

Civil War Medal of Honor Recipients: A Complete Illustrated Record by Robert P. Broadwater; McFarland 2007.

Women’s Occupations Just Before the Civil War

by arohmiller - September 5th, 2014

Written by: Catherine Wilson, Executive Director, Greene County Historical Society

They weren’t all teachers or washerwomen or servants. There were farmers and tavern keepers and even a couple of carpenters. Some women worked outside the home during the 19th century, and I hope to tell part of their story.

This study of the 1860 census covered several areas in Ohio, urban and rural. The counties were, in alphabetical order: Adams, Allen, Belmont, Brown, Clark, Coshocton, Greene, Hocking, Lawrence, Lucas, Meigs, Morrow, Portage, and Seneca. The cities studied were Cincinnati, Columbus, and Cleveland. It did have certain limitations; some of the census microfilms were unreadable for a county I wanted to study. This is why there is an apparent concentration in southern Ohio. Of course, the variety of occupations was greatest in the cities, although rural areas had an interesting mix.

The Gest girls of Greene County.

The Gest girls of Greene County.

Women’s lives of the 1860s were mostly centered in the home, and this study reflects that fact. Most of the occupations were a variation of the “homely duties” every female was expected to know: seamstress, domestic, cook, washerwoman, and other related occupations. This did not surprise me in the least. The few non-traditional occupations were surprising: electrician, cabinet maker, ambrotypist, “droverer”, and more. There was at least one seamstress and at least one milliner in every county and city I studied, including each of Cincinnati’s 17 wards.

Not all these women were single ladies, either. For example, many of the farmers were listed as such alongside their husbands, but there were a significant number of farmers who were either unmarried or widows (no man of the “right age” in the household). The vast majority of women on the 1860 census had no occupation listed, but were employed in their homes nonetheless, with many of the same jobs such as seamstress or cook. Those who did have occupations listed were often responsible for a family as well.

The rougher side of life manifested itself in this study. Women were listed in the Ohio Penitentiary, located in Columbus ward one. There were 13 female inmates out of 936 total, and a 14th who was a housekeeper. The census listed their crimes and how long they had been there, as well as the ordinary listing of age, birthplace, and occupation: these women were “in” for murder, burglary, arson, grand larceny, stabbing, manslaughter, kidnapping, and counterfeiting. Their occupations were house keeper, dress maker, cook, “upholster” and seamstress, and two had no occupation listed. Four were born in Ohio, three in New York, two in Ireland, two in Germany, one in Canada, and one in Pennsylvania. Two were listed as black. All had been incarcerated for less than five years.

Some women listed their occupation in 1860 as a variant of the proverbial oldest profession. They were most often found in Cincinnati, with some exceptions: 9 “courtisans” in Clark Co., and 1 prostitute in Lawrence Co. There were 13 women listed as “fancy” in Lucas Co.; these may have been prostitutes as well, from the context. Most women in this occupation were under 30 and born in the US. There were two instances where an apparent mother and daughter pair were both involved in prostitution, and there may be more.

Some of the more intriguing occupations for each county and city may prove enjoyable. Cleveland had a daguerreotypist, Ruth Culver in ward 2, and a straw milliner. Catlin Millington of Cleveland ward 8 was a sailor, born in Ireland, age 30, with 4 children under age 10. Columbus had 12 lunatic asylum attendants, and Belmont Co. had 3 women who tied tobacco for a living. Adams Co. had a woman selling liquor, and Clark Co. had a gatekeeper. Brown Co. listed one who “takes life easy” and Casandrew Craig, age 17, who worked for the county. Lawrence Co. had a grass widow and an ore digger, Lucas Co. had a soap maker, Morrow Co. had a “droverer”, and Portage Co. had a teacher of ancient languages. Seneca Co. had a Church of God preacher, Olive Haffer, and Julia Rumsey was an MD there, with $2000 real estate and $300 personal estate. Meigs Co. had 7 women who were supported by their friends. Cincinnati occupations that caught my attention were steamboat maid, perfumer, phrenologist, teacher of sewing machines, regalia maker, fortune teller, star candle maker, printing press feeder, sugar kiss folder, sexton, intelligence office, clairvoyant physician, shoe lace maker, and the aforementioned electrician.

Margaret (Andrew) Quinn of Greene County.  This picture of her was taken when she was a teacher.

Margaret (Andrew) Quinn of Greene County. This picture of her was taken when she was a teacher.

Xenia women had many opportunities to interact with different types of people, including immigrants, the poor, Irish railroad workers, African-Americans, transient soldiers, and wartime refugees, for example. There were also new opportunities in education; Antioch College in nearby Yellow Springs not only admitted women, it employed them, and Xenia Female College was a sort of teachers’ college. In the 1860 census, I found 246 Greene County women employed outside the home. Two of these in particular caught my attention. Antioch College matron M. C. Paine was aged 50, born in Vermont; Methodist preacher Elizabeth H. Field lived in Bellbrook, was aged 63, and also born in Vermont. Upon further investigation, with a total of 13,008 women in the county, I found that the top occupations were as follows: domestic, teacher, seamstress, milliner, servant, farmer, and dress maker. Of all domestics in Xenia City, fifty were white, thirteen black, and eight mulatto. Twenty-seven were born in Ireland, twenty-four in Ohio, sixteen were native-born in other than Ohio, and two were foreign born (besides Ireland). Two women left their place of birth blank. Yellow Springs had thirty-seven employed women, Jamestown seven, Cedarville eight, Bellbrook five, and Osborn one.